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: PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION & GAS LAWS
Colin Hewetson 10/6/96
1) WHAT IS REFRIGERATION
In order to understand the principles of Refrigeration it is essential to grasp the concept of matter, forces, energy, volume-temperature- pressure relationships. Refrigeration can be defined as the mechanical or electrical means of transferring heat (energy) from one or more sources or forms at T1 to one or more sinks or forms at T2.
2)WHAT IS THERMODYNAMICS
Defined and literally translated from Greek Thermodynamica means the movement of heat.
3)WHAT IS HEAT
Defined as a form of energy, in transition due to a difference in temperature. Therefore, if heat is a form of energy it can be converted into other forms of energy and vice versa. Thermodynamically heat energy is a measure of matters molecular velocity or motion. Heat energy can modify the physical state or shape of all matter i.e. solid to liquid / liquid to solid / liquid to vapour / vapour to liquid / solid to vapour.
Heat energy can be transferred only form matter at a higher temperature to matter at a lo1wer temperature by convection/ conduction / Radiation.
4)WHAT IS ENERGY
Defined as the capacity to do work or cause motion (derived from Greek word meaning containing work) all matter possesses two kinds of energy:
KINETIC ENERGY
The energy matter possesses as a result of its molecular motion or velocity and is a function of the matters molecular mass and velocity.
POTENTIAL ENERGY
Defined as the sum of the molecular energy matter possesses as a result of its position due to work done on it and is therefore the ability to do work.
TOTAL ENERGY
The sum of the above and is the enthalpy of the bodies system, or total heat.
ENTROPY
Although energy or any form of work can be converted into heat, the reverse is not true. In any energy conversion such as electric energy into light or heat energy, some of the energy is wasted from the system into the environment. The capacity of any system to perform work is free energy and the portion unavoidably lost is reflected in the measurement of Entropy.
5) WHAT IS MATTER
Matter or any kind of material or substance that occupies space and has mass. All matter comprises:
ATOMS
Subatomic particles called protons neutrons electrons the number of each determine what atom it is, approximately 103 different atoms exist in the universe.
MOLECULES
Small particles made up of two or more atoms. The number of atoms determine what kind of molecule it is, i.e. water H2O contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.
ELEMENTS
Substance consisting of only one kind of atom, since there are about 103 atoms there are about 103 elements i.e. oxygen / hydrogen / lead / iron.
6) MIXTURES & COMPOUNDS
COMPOUNDS
Substance made up of two or more elements and can be divided into their separate elements. Water is a compound (H2O). The physical properties of a compound i.e. freezing/boiling point for example are different from the elements making up the compound.
MIXTURES
Made up of two or more elements or compounds i.e. air is a mixture of oxygen / carbon dioxide / nitrogen and is different from a compound or element because it is not made up of only one kind of molecule or atom.
SOLUTIONS
A mixture formed by dissolving a substance in a liquid.
7) INTERELATION OF MATTER/FORCES/ENERGY/HEAT/PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE /VOLUME
MATTER
Universally all matter exists in 3 basic forms Solid LiquidVapor. All matter consists of molecules and atoms. All atoms consist of a nucleus comprising positively charged protons plus neutrally charged neutrons, encircled by negatively charged electrons generally as number of protons and neutrons are equal in number all matter is electrically neutral. The shape or state of matter is dependant on temperature and pressure.
FORCES
There are 4 known forces in the universe which control the state and shape of all bodies and matter in it.
a) GRAVITY
The force between 2 bodies or particles. Force of gravity is affected by 2 factors mass distance. The greater the mass the greater the force. The greater the distance the weaker the force (inverse square law).
b) ELECTROMAGNETIC
The force generated from the presence of an electric charge on a body or particle. Electric charges are positive and negative in nature and will attract of repel each other depending on whether they are like of unlike charges. Under normal circumstances objects we normally live with are electrically neutral or uncharged. The unit of positive electric charge is the proton and for negative charge the electron. All atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons. The electro magnetic force exists between the nucleus and its surrounding electrons.
c) NUCLEAR
The force which keeps the nucleus together (neutrons and protons) by attraction. The nuclear force is the strongest of the 4 known forces.
d) WEAK INTERACTION
A force not much understood but known to be greater than gravitational forces, weaker than nuclear forces. It prevents protons, electrons and neutrons from coalescing or forming neutrons. So to change matters shape or state you have to control its forces.
8)PRESSURE/VOLUME/TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE
Indicates how hot or cold a body is and can be defined as a measure of the net angular velocity of the bodies molecules. When molecular velocity is reduced to a given point or increased to given point matter will change shape or state i.e. forma solid to a liquid pr a liquid to a gas these points or change are known as fusion and vaporization points. At these points any (heat) energy added or subtracted merely increases or decreases the molecules atomic forces (gravitational /nuclear/electromagnetic) and no increase in temperature arises. If no change of state takes place the addition / subtraction of heat energy merely raises or lowers the bodies temperature and heat content.
ABSOLUTE: ZERO
Temperature at which molecular motion is said to cease and heat content is near zero absolute temperature is 463F or 273C.
PRESSURE
Another measurement of molecular velocity like temperature. Pressure indicates the force exerted on a solid / liquid / gas per unit area. Control of pressure provides controls of temperature, by raising the pressure the temperature rises and lowering the pressure the temperature falls.
VOLUME
As the temperature and or pressure is increased or reduced, the substance or compound will expand or contract, likewise its density, and will occupy greater or lesser area or space. Fundamental laws govern the relationship of temperature / pressure / volume. If a gas is heated and its pressure kept constant its volume will increase 1/492 per F. When the pressure of a gas is kept constant the volume of the gas varies directly with its absolute temperature. The law governing a constant pressure process is Charles Law, as an equation written T1V2 = T2V1.If a gas volume is increased or decreased at constant temperature, the absolute pressure will vary inversely to the volume so if a gas is compressed at constant temperature its absolute temperature will increase proportionate to the volume decrease. The law governing a constant temperature process is Boyles Law as a equation written P1V1 = P2 V2. If the gas volume is held constant as heat is added or subtracted (temperature raised or lowered) the absolute pressure will increase in direct proportion to the increase or decrease in temperature. Again Charles Law governs a constant volume process written as an equation T1P2 = T2P1.
So the temperature / pressure / volume relationship and laws can be examined and combined into a general gas law written as a equation:
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
For any given mass of gas, the product of the pressure (Psia) and volume divided by the absolute temperature will always be constant. The constant will be different for the various gases and the gas mass (weight), refrigerant constants can be found in tables and taking the gas weight into the equation and multiplying both sides by M (mass in lbs) the general gas law /equation can be simplified to PMV = MRT but sine MV = V then PV = MRT therefore, since R can be found in tables if any 3 of the other 4 properties are known the fourth property can be determined.
9) WHAT IS A GAS?
Gases appear to us as material of very low density that must be enclosed to keep together. Unlike solids, gases have no definite shape. Unlike liquids, gases have no definite volume, but they completely fill a container. The volume of the container is the volume of the gas in it. A gas exerts a pressure on all sides of the container that holds it. Gas can be compressed by pressures greater than the pressure the gas on its container. The words vapor, fume, air, or miasma also describe a gas. Air describes the common mixture of gases in the atmosphere. A miasma is usually a bad-smelling or poisonous gas. The words vapor and fume suggest that the gas came from a particular liquid. In the gaseous state matter is made of particles (atoms or molecules) that are not attached to each other. The intermolecular or interatomic forces that hold solids and liquids have been overcome by the motion of the molecules. The particles of a gas have too much thermal energy to stay attached to each other. The motion and vibration of the atoms pull the individual molecules apart from each other. Liquid air (with all of the molecules touching each other) has a density of 0.875 grams per milliliter. By Avogadro's law, a mol of any gas occupies 22.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure (STP).
1 mol of any gas at STP = 22.4 liters
Air in the gas phase at standard temperature and pressure (1 atmosphere of pressure and 0C) has a mol of it (28.96 g) in 22.4 liters, coming to 1.29 grams per liter. Liquid air is over 675 times denser than the air at one atmosphere. As an estimate, each molecule of gas in the air has 675 times its own volume to rattle around in. Gases are mostly unoccupied space. Each molecule of a gas can travel for a long distance before it encounters another molecule. We can think of a gas as having a 'point source of mass', that is, the volume of the molecule is negligible compared to the space it occupies. When a gas molecule hits another one, they bounce off each other, ideally in a completely elastic encounter. There is pressure within the gas that is caused by the gas molecules in motion striking each other and anything else in the gas. The pressure that a gas exerts on its container comes from the molecules of gas hitting the inside of the container and bouncing off. There are some materials that do not appear in the form of a gas because the amount of molecular motion necessary to pull a molecule away from its neighbors is enough to pull the molecule apart. For this reason, you are not likely to see large biological molecules such as proteins, fats, or DNA in the form of a gas.
THE IDEAL GAS LAW FORMULA
A gas may be completely described by its makeup, pressure, temperature, and volume. Where P is the pressure, V is the volume, n is the number of Mols of gas, T is the absolute temperature, and R is the Universal Gas Constant PV=nRT
This formula is the "Ideal Gas Law Formula." The formula is pretty accurate for all gases as we assume that the gas molecules are point masses and the collisions of the molecules are totally elastic. (A completely elastic collision means that the energy of the molecules before a collision equals the energy of the molecules after a collision, or, to put it another way, there is no attraction among the molecules.) The formula becomes less accurate as the gas becomes very compressed and as the temperature decreases. There are some correction factors for both of these factors for each gas to convert it to a Real Gas Law Formula, but the Ideal Gas Law is a good estimation of the way gases act. We will consider only the Ideal Gas Law Formula here. The Universal Gas Constant, R, can be expressed in several ways, depending upon the units of P, V, and T. One common R is 0.0821 liter - atmospheres per mol - degree. It is highly recommended that you know this value for R and the Ideal Gas Law Formula.
VARIATIONS ON THE IDEAL GAS LAW FORMULA
The Ideal Gas Law Formula is a wonderful place to begin learning almost all of the formulas for gases where PV= (m/Fw)RT
You are not likely to get out of a chemistry class without a question like:
What is the mass of neon in a neon light at 0.00545 Atmospheres at 24 degrees Celsius if the inside volume is 0.279 liters?
GIVEN: P = 0.00545 Atmospheres T = 24C + 273 = 297K V = 0.279 liters
mass (m) of neon m/Fw can now substitute for n and P V = (m/Fw) R T or Fw P V = m R T. When you solve for m, you almost have the problem completely done.
THE COMBINED GAS LAW FORMULA
The Combined Gas Law Formula is the relationship of changing pressure, temperature, and volume of an ideal gas. The same amount of the same gas is given at two different sets of conditions. Let's call the first set of measurements, 'condition #1,' and the second set of measurements, 'condition #2.' We could label the pressure, temperature and volume symbols each with the subscripted number of the condition it represents. P1 is the pressure at condition #1. P2 is the pressure at condition #2. V1 is the volume at condition #1, etc. The gas laws apply to both conditions, so P1 V1 = n R T1 and P2 V2 = n R T2. R is always the same Universal Gas Constant. If we are considering the same gas only at two different conditions, then n1 = n2. Since they are both equations, we could divide one equation by the other to get:
P1 V1 = n1 R T1 or P1 V1 = T1 or P1 V1 = T1P2 V2 = n2 R T2 P2 V2 = T2 P2 V2 T2
The last form can be a very useful one. This is the form of the Combined Gas Law Formula that Chemtutor finds easiest to remember. The formulas that most books call the Gas Laws are all contained in the Combined Gas Law. The Combined Law Formula is the one to use if you have any doubt about which of the Gas Laws to use where P1V1/P2V2=T1/T2
BOYLE'S LAW
Boyle's Law is useful when we compare two conditions of the same gas with no change in temperature. (remember Boyle's is at the same temperature) No change in temperature means T1 = T2, so we can cancel the two temperatures in the Complete Gas Law Formula and get:
P1 V1 = 1 or P1 V1 = P2 V2 the usual Boyle's Law
The usual expression of Boyle's Law was lurking right there in the Combined Gas Law Formula. As you can see Boyle's Law is in the classic form of P is inversely proportional to V."We could predict that from the P and V being together in the numerator of the same side of the equation. To get a feel for Boyle's Law, visualize a small balloon between your hands. The balloon is so small that you can push all sides of it together between your hands without any of the balloon pouching out at any point. When you push your hands together the volume of the gas in the balloon decreases as the pressure increases. When you let up on the pressure, the volume increases as the pressure decreases.
CHARLES'S LAW
Again we start with the Combined Law to get Charles's Law, but now there is no change in the pressure volume, so P1 = P2.
P1 V1 = T1P2 V2 T2
If you cancel out the two pressures, you get a form of Charles's Law that I consider easiest to remember you can still see the P V = n R T in it if you look hard enough V1/V2=T1/T2 or it may be writtenin the following form:
V1 = V2T1 T2
These two expressions are mathematically exactly the same, but the first one shows its origin in the Combined Law and remember it by the fact that Charles law is under constant pressure.
To get a better feeling for Charles's Law consider a child's balloon. At points between the beginning of filling of a balloon and the maximum stretching of a balloon, the change in internal pressure of a balloon is negligible as the balloon increases in size. A balloon is partially filled at room temperature and placed in the sun inside a car on a hot day in summer where the balloon expands in proportion to the Kelvin temperature. When the same balloon is take out of the car and put into a home freezer the volume of the balloon decreases.
THE THIRD LAW
The third gas law from the Combined Gas Law has been named for Gay-Lussac in some books, Amonton in others and not named in a large number of books. It is amusing to read a book that does not name the third law and needs to refer to it. The third law is the relationship of pressure and temperature with constant volume (V1 = V2.) the pressure and absolute temperature of a gas are directly proportional.
P1 V1 = T1P2 V2 T2
And so we get the third law, the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a gas P1/P2=T1/T2 or as in Charles's Law it can be arranged so that it appears in the same form you see in some text books.
P1 = P2T1 T2
To get a feel for the third Law, consider a car tyre. With a tire gauge measure the pressure of the tyre before and immediately after a long trip. When cool the tyre has a lower pressure. As the tyre rotates on the road the temperature increases due to friction the air expands and the pressure correspondingly increases. If you were to plot the temperature versus pressure of a car tyre, would zero pressure extrapolate to absolute zero? Remember what you are measuring the pressure of a car tyre is actually the air pressure above atmospheric pressure so if you add atmospheric pressure to your tyre gauge you would certainly come closer to extrapolating to absolute zero.
GAS STOICHIOMETRY MATH
Stoichiometry is the calculation of an unknown material in a chemical reaction from the information given about another of the materials in the same chemical reaction. What if either the given material or the material you are asked to find is a gas? In stoichiometry you need to know the amount of one material. For gases not at STP, you must know the pressure, temperature, and volume to know the amount of material given. If you are given a gas not at STP, you will be able to substitute P V = n R T for the given side and plug it directly into the mols place by solving the equation for 'n'. Here is a sample problem using a gas not at STP as the given.
What mass of ammonia would you get from enough nitrogen with 689 liters of hydrogen gas at 350C and 4587 mmHg?Given: 689 l H2 = V T = 350C + 273 = 623K P = 4587 mmHg (change to Atm)Notice we have all three of the bits of data to know the amount of hydrogen.Find: Mass (m) of NH33 H2 + N2 INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT 2 NH3
The outline plan of direction from the HYPERLINK "http://www.chemtutor.com/mols.htm" \l "road" stoichiometry roadmap is:
(gas laws) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (mols given) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (mol ratio) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (formula weight find) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (mass find)
The ideal gas law ( P v = n R T ) must be solved for 'n' so it can be used as the 'given' of the outline.
(P V)(mols NH3)(Fw NH3)=ammonia massR Tmols H2mols NH3givenmol ratioFw findmass findThings are a bit different when you need to find the volume, pressure, or temperature of a gas not at STP. You will need to solve P V = n R T for the dimension you need to find and attach it to the end of the sequence using the roadmap to find 'n' for the gas. Let's take another problem based on the same chemical equation to explore how to set up finding a gas not at STP.
What volume of ammonia at 7.8 atmospheres and 265C would you get from 533 grams of nitrogen?Given: m H2 = 533 g (Now hydrogen is the known material.)Find: Volume of ammonia at P = 7.8 Atm and T = 265C + 273 = 538K
The outline plan is now: (mass given) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (Fw given) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (mols given) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (mol ratio) INCLUDEPICTURE "../My%20Documents/My%20Documents/rEFRIGERATION%20GUIDANCE%20NOTES/gas%20laws_files/arrow.gif" \* MERGEFORMAT (gas laws)
(mass of H2)(mols H2)(mols NH3)=mols of ammonia 1Fw of H2mols H2givenFw givenmol ratiomols findNow the result of the stoichiometry is the number of mols of ammonia, 'n' in the ideal gas formula. We solve for the volume we want to find.
V = n R T/P and insert the numbers with 'n' coming from the stoichiometry, or we can tack ( RT/P ) onto the end of the stoichiometry.
(mass of H2)(mols H2)(mols NH3)(R T)=V of NH31Fw of H2mols H2PgivenFw givenmol ratiogas lawvolume
POINTERS ON GAS LAW MATH PROBLEMS
1. Know the units and dimensions of pressure, volume and temperature and how to convert them to what you want.
2. The gas laws require an absolute temperature, usually Kelvin, in the formulas. Know how to convert any temperature measurement you are given to Kelvin.
3. Know the number and units of 'R' to use in the gas equations. Remember to convert all the units to the units of the 'R' you use to cancel the units.
4. Carefully label the dimension and condition of each variable. The dimensions of the same condition must be labeled with the same subscript.
5. You can use the Combined Gas Law Formula for any of these problems, but you must carefully cancel any dimensions that are the same in both conditions.
6. Solve for the unknown, insert the given quantities, and cancel the units to make sure your answer will come out right.
AVOGADRO'S LAW
There is even more we can do with good old P V = n R T. The first part of this section introduced you to Avogadro's Law. One mole of any gas takes up a volume of 22.4 liters at standard temperature and pressure (STP). If we go back to the comparison of two formulas of the Ideal Gas Law, we have:
P1 V1 = n1 R T1P2 V2 = n2 R T2
The R's are the same, so they can be cancelled. At standard temperature, T1 = T2 = 273K, and the T's can be cancelled. At standard pressure, P1 = P2 = 1 atmosphere, and the P's can be cancelled. When all the canceling has been done,
V1 = n1V2 n2
If the volume is proportional to the number of mols of a gas, there is a constant, k, that we can use in the formula, V = k n, to express the proportionality of V and n. What is that proportionality constant? At standard temperature and pressure, the pressure is one atmosphere and the temperature is 273K. The Universal Gas Constant is still 0.0821 Liter - atmospheres per mol - degree. Let's set n at one to find out what k is.
P V = n R T and V = n R T/P
V = (1 mol) (0.0821 L - A/ mol - K) (237 K) / (1 A)
Cancel the mols, the A's (for Atmosphere) and the K's. Do the math.
V = 22.4 Liters
We have seen this number before in Avogadro's Law, and this is where it comes from. When n is one mol and V is 22.4 Liters, k is 22.4 Liters/mol. Always remember 1mol of any gas at STP= 22.4ltr
DALTON'S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES
Similarily to the way we derived V = k n for Avogadro's Law above when the pressure is constant we can derive P = k n for conditions when the volume does not change. This time there is no notable significance to the k, so we will just say that P is proportional to n when the temperature and pressure are constant. In conditions when more than one gas is mixed, we could number and add the pressures and mols. If we were to have P1 of gas #1 due to n1 mols of it and P2 of another gas (#2) due to n2 mols of it, those two gases in the same volume (They must be at the same temperature.) can be added together. PT is the total pressure and nT is the total number of mols.
n1 + n2 = nT and P1 + P2 = PT
This has nothing to do with whether gas #1 is the same as gas #2. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures says that, " The sum of all the partial pressures of the gases in a volume are equal to the total pressure." Where PT is the total pressure, P1 is the partial pressure of 'gas #1', P2 is the partial pressure of 'gas #2', Pn is the pressure of the last gas, whatever number (n) it is.
GRAHAM'S LAW OF DIFFUSION (OR EFFUSION)
Gases under no change of pressure that either diffuse in all directions from an original concentration or effuse through a small hole move into mixture at a rate that is inversely proportional to the square root of the formula weight of the gas particle.The mental picture of diffusion could be the drop of ink (with the same specific gravity as water) being carefully placed in the center of a glass of water. The ink will diffuse from the original point where it was deposited with no mixing of the glass of water. The mixing of diffusion is due to the movement of the molecules. Gases diffuse more quickly than liquids because the energy of motion is higher and the available path for unobstructed straight movement is much greater in gases.
Temperature is a type of energy. Temperature is the way we feel the motion of the molecules. E = 1/2 m v2 is the formula for energy of motion. This very motion of the molecules is the operating motion of the mixing action of diffusion. The mass of the molecule is the formula weight or molecular weight of the gas particle.
From the formula for energy of motion we can see that the mass of the particle (the formula weight) is inversely proportional to the square of the velocity of the particle. This is the easiest way to remember Graham's Law where (V1squared/V2squared=Fw2/Fw1. Notice in the formula that 'v1' is over 'v2' and that 'Fw' is over 'Fw1'. This is so that the inverse relationship can be expressed in the formula.
If you are solving for the effusion velocity of a particle you might take the square root of both sides to get the other useful Graham's Law formula.
GAS LAW MATH PROBLEMS
1. Helium takes up 5.71 liters at OC and 3.95 atmospheres. What is the volume of the same helium at 32F and 800 mmHg?
2. 257 mL of oxygen in a gas tube goes from 17C to 42C from being out in the sun. The pressure in the tube is 39 #/in2, but it does not change as the temperature increases. What is the volume of the tube after it has heated?
3. An enormous (57,400 cubic meter) expandable helium balloon at 22C is heated up by a fire under it and the action of the sun on the dark plastic covering on top. There will be a small increase in pressure from 785 mmHg to 790 mmHg, but the major effect wanted is an increase in volume so the balloon can lift its cargo. To what temperature must the balloon get in order to fill out to 60,500 cubic meters?
4. What volume of air at standard pressure gets packed into an 11 ft3 SCUBA tank at the same temperature at 15.8 atmospheres?
5. Air is 20% oxygen and 80% nitrogen. What is the mass of air in an automobile tire of 19.7 L and internal pressure of 46.7 PSI at 24C? (That pressure is the same as the 32 PSI difference you usually measure as the tire pressure 32 PSI + 14.7 PSI. You will have to use a weighted average for the molar mass of air.)
6. A constant pressure tank of gas at 1.01 Atm has propane in it at 15C when it is at 255 cubic meters. What is its volume at 48C?
7. A SCUBA tank is filled with air at 16.7 Atm at 24C, but someone leaves it out in the sun to warm to 65C. What is the tank pressure?
8. The usual partial pressure of oxygen that people get at sea level is 0.20 Atm., that is, a fifth of the usual sea level air pressure. People used to 1 Atm. air pressure begin to become "light-headed" at about 0.10 Atm oxygen. As a rule of thumb, the air pressure decreases one inch of mercury each thousand feet of altitude above sea level. At what altitude should airplane cabins be pressurized? Up to about what altitude should you be able to use unpressurized pure oxygen? (Express your answer in feet above Mean Sea Level, or MSL.)
9. Which diffuses faster, the bad smell from a cat-pan due to ammonia or an expensive French perfume with an average molecular weight of 170 g/mol? "How much faster does the faster one diffuse?
10. What is the mass of neon in a 625 mL neon tube at 357 mmHg & 25C?
11. What is the mass of 15 liters of chlorine gas at STP?
12. How many liters of ammonia at STP are produced when 10 g of hydrogen is combined with nitrogen?
13. How many milliliters of hydrogen at 0C and 1400 mmHg are produced if 15g of magnesium reacts with sulfuric acid?
14. What is the mass of 25 liters of fluorine gas at 2.85 atm, 450C?
15. A nine liter tank has 150 atmospheres of bromine in it at 27C. What is the added mass of the tank due to the gas?
16. A 250 Kg tank of liquid butane (C4H1O) burns to produce carbon dioxide at 120C. What volume of carbon dioxide is produced at 1 Atm?
17. How many liters of product at 950 mmHg and OC is produced by the burning of three liters of acetylene (C2H2) at 5 atm and 20C?
18. Five grams of octane (C8H18) and enough oxygen to burn it are in an automobile cylinder compressed to 20 atm at 28C. The mixture explodes and heats the cylinder to 150C. What is the pressure in the (same sized) cylinder after the explosion?
19. If 0.515g of magnesium is added to HCl, it makes hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. The hydrogen is collected at 23C and 735mmHg. What is the volume of hydrogen?
20. What is the mass of 150 liters of propane gas (C3H8) at 37C and 245 inHg?
21. Isopropyl alcohol, C3H7OH , makes a good fuel for cars. What volume of oxygen at 735 mmHg and 23C is needed to burn one kilogram of isopropyl alcohol?
22. What volume does 4 Kg of nitrogen gas take up at 27C and 3 atm?
23. The dirigible Hindenberg had 3.7E6 m3 of hydrogen in its gas bags at 1.1 atm and 7C. What was the weight of the hydrogen in pounds?
ANSWERS TO GAS LAW MATH PROBLEMS1. 21.4 L2. 279 ml3. 39.9C4. 174 ft35. 73.9 g6. 284 cubic meters7. 19.0 Atm8a. 15,000 ft. MSL8b. 27,000 ft. MSL9. Ammonia diffuses 3.16 times faster (Wouldn't you KNOW it?)10. 0.242 g11. 47.5 g12. 74.7 L13. 7.51 L14. 45.6 g15. 8.76 Kg16. 5.56 E5 L17. 33.5 L18. 35.4 Atm.19. 532 ml20. 2.12 Kg21. 209 KL22. 1.17 KL23. 7.80 E5 L
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